The kidneys ensure that waste substances are eliminated from the body so that life can continue. On the other hand, it filters out some substances that are necessary for the body and adjusts their levels. Kidney stones may occur due to problems in the mechanism related to this function of the kidneys.

What are kidney stones?

The solid structures formed by the combination of some minerals in the kidney canals, usually due to unknown reasons, are called kidney stones. It is also known as renal calculus or calculi. This disease is 3 times more common in men than in women. Renal stones, once formed, tend to recur even if they are eliminated with treatment.

Causes of kidney stones

The kidney stones causes are not known definitively. However, thanks to past health experiences, the medical world can predict some factors that cause the formation of renal stones. Renal calculi form when your urine contains too many crystal-forming substances such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid. At the same time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together. The presence of calcium oxalate crystals in the urine system can create an ideal environment for the formation of ureteric calculus. Other factors that are presumed to cause this disease include:

  • do not drink enough water
  • are taking some medication
  • have a some medical condition


Kidney stone attacks are usually manifested by severe pain in the side of the abdomen. Renal stones, however, do not cause pain until they move within the kidney. If the stones pass into one of the ureters, pain is felt again. The tubes that connect the kidneys and bladder are called ureters.

Kidney stone attack symptoms occur in the same way in men and women. However, the risk of these stones forming is higher in men. If a kidney stone is placed in the ureters, this condition can interfere with the flow of urine. As a result, the kidney swells and spasm occurs in the ureter. This also leads to a feeling of severe kidney stone abdominal pain. In general, you may experience the following symptoms:

  • Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Severe, sharp pain in the side and back,
  • Pain that comes in waves
  • Burning sensation while urinating

Kidney stone and constipation

Constipation is a factor that provokes the formation of kidney stones. Because in this process, calcium and oxalate substances are absorbed more in the intestines, as a result, their amount excreted from the kidney increases. Eat plenty of fiber-rich fruits and vegetables to prevent constipation.

Kidney stone and diarrhea

Often chronic diarrhea can lead to chronic dehydration and calculus in kidney, that is, kidney stones. This article explores how your digestive health and eating habits affect the healthy functions of other organs in the body. It results in conditions such as kidney stones.

Types of kidney stones

Before proceeding to the stages of passing a kidney stonee and the methods of diagnosis, let’s list what types of stones may be:

  • Calcium stones:These are usually in the form of calcium oxalate stones. Many kidney stones also come in this form. Calcium oxalate in urine is a substance that is already present. However, the excess is absorbed by absorption. However, when calcium oxalate crystals are not sufficiently absorbed, these crystals turn into small stones.
  • Struvite stones:These occur after a urinary tract infection. Strutive stones can grow quickly, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning.
  • Uric acid stones:In people who lose a lot of fluid due to chronic diarrhea or malabsorption, these stones can occur in those who are on a high-protein diet. However, uric acid stones can occur in people with diabetes or metabolic syndrome.
  • Cystine stones:Cystone stones occur in people with an inherited disorder called cystinuria. Cystuniri causes the kidneys to secrete too many specific amino acids.


There are some methods used for the kidney stone analysis. First, your doctor will give you a detailed physical examination. In doing so, the nephrolithiasis (kidney stone) tries to determine the location of the pain. He then asks you to tell him about your symptoms. He or she will then ask you to have several of the following examinations:

  • Blood testing:Blood tests tell if you have too much calcium or uric acid in your blood. These results help you monitor the health of your kidneys.
  • Urine testing:This test is a 24-hour urine collection test. With this test, you can tell if your kidneys are secreting too many stone-forming minerals or too few anti-stone substances.
  • Imaging: Stones in the urinary tract can be seen with imaging tests. It is even possible to see small stones with high-speed or dual-energy computed tomography (CT).
  • Analysis of passed stones: You will be asked to filter your urine to catch the stones you have passed. The laboratory analysis to be performed allows you to understand what your kidney stones are.

Kidney stones treatment

Urinary stone treatment differs depending on the structure and cause of the stones. The types of passing a kidney stone that are performed in general are:

  • Drinking water:Drinking 2 to 3 liters of water a day dilutes your urine. This can prevent the formation of stones. Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, drink enough fluids to produce clear urine.
  • Pain relievers: To relieve mild pain, your doctor may prescribe painkillers such as ibuprofen.
  • Medical therapy:Your doctor will prescribe medications to help lower your kidney stones. This type of drug is known as an alpha blocker. This kidney stone medicine helps you get rid of the kidney stone with less pain by relaxing the muscles in your ureter.

Kidney stone removal

It is removed by medical procedures that are too large to pass on their own or cause bleeding. However, kidney stones that continue to have kidney damage or cause urinary tract infections may require more extensive treatment.

Kidney stones diet

Consume less oxalate-rich foods to prevent the formation of kidney stones. However, follow a diet lower in salt and animal protein. You can take calcium supplements. You can consume calcium-rich foods. However, you should not overdo it in this regard. Ask a specialist doctor for renal stones for a special diet list for you.

If you have one or more of the above complaints, you can make an appointment with our Urology department.

Frequently Asked Questions

How to prevent kidney stones?

Some foods such as dark green leafy vegetables, tea, coffee are foods rich in oxalate. It is useful to consume them in moderation. Also drink plenty of water and pay attention to your diet. Exercise regularly.

How to pass a kidney stone in 24 hours?

For this, your doctor will give you painkillers. By drinking plenty of water, you can be able to urinate small stones. However, it is usually not possible to dispose of a renal stone in 24 hours. For this you need a minimum of two days.

Do you pee out kidney stones?
Kidney stones are mostly excreted through urine without causing any damage to the body. However, treatment may be required for stones that recur and cannot be excreted through urine.